I asked him whether building a boat had anything in common with making a sculpture. “I don’t think it does,” he said. “Boat building is intellectual – everything has a reason. In sculpture, it has a direction.”

In Roland Berner’s class:
“The first day, I made this sculpture out of scrap steel parts, and I took wheels and welded them on it,” Ray recalled. “I ran into Brener after class, and he said, ‘That sculpture you made today was very interesting spatially. But those wheels – they looked like flowers in a still-life. It shows me you want to make something, instead of discovering something. Don’t ever do that in my class again.’ It changed my life. No one had ever taken me seriously that way. I’ve thought about it ever since, the difference between making and discovering.”

Calvin Tomkins, “Meaning Machines,” The New Yorker, May 11, 2015, accessed June 06, 2015.